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Scholarly Essays

Shadow War: Federal Military Authority and Loyalty Oaths in Civil War Missouri

An essay by ,
University of Cincinnati
Self portrait of the famed painter George Caleb Bingham, who served as Missouri's State Treasurer during the Civil War.  Bingham opposed the development of the dominion system and Gen. Ewing's Order No. 11.
In February 1862, the Missouri provisional government’s new state treasurer, George Caleb Bingham, saw a troublesome development in his war-torn state. Garrisoning federal troops, especially in the western portion of Missouri, were subjecting civilians "to a kind of winnowing process by which the 'tares' were to be separated from the wheat — the loyal from the disloyal portion of the inhabitants."